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U.S. Security Assistance to Egypt: Military Aid and Legislative Conditionality

The U.S. provides Egypt with roughly $1.3 billion in security assistance annually, primarily in the form of Foreign Military Financing (FMF) grants. Since 2011, U.S. security assistance has come under increasing criticism. This paper analyzes U.S.-Egypt security cooperation in light of post-2011 developments.

Following an overview of U.S. assistance, subsequent sections analyze the legal framework and relevant legislation, particularly in light of the July 2013 removal of President Morsi from office. Subsequently, an analysis of military training and legislative conditionality is presented, with a view towards opportunities for reform.

Concluding the paper, several policy recommendations are made for U.S. policymakers to more meaningfully support the development of balanced civil military relations in Egypt and prioritize respect for human rights and the rule of law.

Keywords: Egypt, U.S., military aid, foreign assistance, military procurement, human rights, security cooperation, civil-military relations, Foreign Military Financing (FMF), security, governance.

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